HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis are a spectrum of major infections that can be transmitted through blood and other body fluids. In the last century, infection with these infections could occur in inpatient (nosocomial) conditions, since donor blood was not tested and insufficient disinfection of medical instruments could also be an infection factor. Historically, it so happened that it was for these infections that the status of a “hospital complex” was entrenched, which is currently assigned by default before hospitalization and preventive examinations.
Hospital infections are transmitted most often through blood and sex. In order to prevent the spread of these infections, disposable instruments, strict disinfection and mandatory examination for hospital infections were introduced in medicine in the 20th century.
How can you get infected?
Infection through blood and other biological fluids. Of all hospital infections, the most dangerous “in everyday life” is hepatitis B. It is ten times more infectious than HIV and hepatitis C. A minimal amount of blood is enough, since the virus persists in the external environment. The risk of contracting hepatitis B is high when using someone else’s toothbrushes, manicure, tattooing, and piercing. Even common combs and bath accessories can play a role in the presence of micro-injuries and cracks. Hepatitis C and HIV are more likely to become infected by direct blood-to-blood contact (during transfusion, operations) or through close exchange of “biological fluids”.
Sexual route. For all of these infections, unprotected sexual intercourse is dangerous.
Transmission of infection from mother to fetus during intrauterine development, which is why it is important to examine all pregnant women for these infections in order to take timely measures and prevent the infection from reaching the child)
The hospital complex includes the determination of total antibodies to hepatitis C https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatitis_C and syphilis, the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HBsAg, or Australian antigen) and HIV antibodies and antigens.
Who needs to be screened for hospital infections?
Before any hospitalization in a hospital or before carrying out manipulations in a polyclinic
After casual sexual intercourse – in a month, since the immune system must have time to develop antibodies in response to infection
If there is clinical suspicion
When an infection is detected in a sexual partner, and for hepatitis B – in a close relative or a person living in the same apartment.
As part of the annual preventive examination
If, after passing the tests, a negative result was obtained, but there was a risk factor for infection, it is necessary to be examined every 3 months during the year, since pathogens affect the immune system and antibodies may not begin to be detected immediately. This is another insidiousness of hospital infections.
To test for HIV under your name you need a passport, this is a legal requirement when prescribing an HIV test. In the absence of a passport, the study will be carried out anonymously.
Do your tests on time and be healthy!